Makris , A.*
Asklepieion Hospital of Voula, Anaesthesia, Athens, Greece
ESRA Academy. Makris A. Sep 16, 2017; 196166; esra7-0491
Dr. Alexandros Makris
Dr. Alexandros Makris
Login now to access Regular content available to all registered users.

Access to Premium content is currently a membership benefit.

Click here to join ESRA or renew your membership.

Discussion Forum (0)
Rate & Comment (0)

The increasing familiarity with the use of US technology by anaesthesiologists has led to a growing academic and clinical interest in the use of ultrasonography for optimal airway management.

Since ultrasound waves cannot penetrate air, images of the airway structures differ from the ones anaesthesiologists are familiar with in US guided nerve blocks or even transesophageal echocardiography. Intraluminal air produces comet tail or reverberation artifacts. Bone appears bright and hyperechoic with an acoustic shadow behind. Cartilaginous structures like thyroid, cricoid and trachea are homogeneous and hypoechoic but tend to calcify with age. Muscle and connective tissue are heterogeneously striated and hypoechoic. Fatty and glandular (submandibular, thyroid) tissues are homogeneous and hyperechoic in comparison with adjacent soft tissues.

So, US technology can be used to visualize and examine the airway and its surroundings from the tip of the chin up to the trachea. Results of this examination may assist in several aspects the evaluation of the airway. It has been used in order to determine airway size and estimate appropriate endotracheal tube (ETT) size (assessing the narrowest diameter of the cricoid lumen),  to predict difficult laryngoscopy (visualization of hyoid bone, measurement of pretracheal tissue and hyomental distance), to verify ETT position in situations involving cardiovascular arrest where capnography is not indicative, to facilitate awake intubation using US guided upper airway anaesthesia and  identifying cricothyroid membrane before management of a difficult airway.

Additionally, US is used in diagnosing intraoperative pneumothorax and in assessing gastric content and volume, that can help determine aspiration risk. 

Code of conduct/disclaimer available in General Terms & Conditions
Anonymous User Privacy Preferences

Strictly Necessary Cookies (Always Active)

MULTILEARNING platforms and tools hereinafter referred as “MLG SOFTWARE” are provided to you as pure educational platforms/services requiring cookies to operate. In the case of the MLG SOFTWARE, cookies are essential for the Platform to function properly for the provision of education. If these cookies are disabled, a large subset of the functionality provided by the Platform will either be unavailable or cease to work as expected. The MLG SOFTWARE do not capture non-essential activities such as menu items and listings you click on or pages viewed.

Performance Cookies

Performance cookies are used to analyse how visitors use a website in order to provide a better user experience.

Google Analytics is used for user behavior tracking/reporting. Google Analytics works in parallel and independently from MLG’s features. Google Analytics relies on cookies and these cookies can be used by Google to track users across different platforms/services.

Save Settings